Clive Svendsen, Ph.D.

A Short Biography:

Awards and Activities
Huntington Disease Trailblazer Award (2009)
Statuette Award, International Academy for Child Brain Development 2006
Bernard Sanberg Memorial Award for Brain Repair 2005)
Editorial Board: Experimental Neurology Current


Work Titles
CTSI Member, CTSI Member, Center for Translational Technologies
Cedar-Sinai Medical Center Director, Cedars-Sinai Regenerative Medicine Institute
UCLA Professor In-Residence, Medicine
Education:
Degrees:
Ph.D., University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, 1985 - 1983
B.Sc., University of London, Kings College, England, 1979 - 1983
Honors and Awards:
2009 Huntington Disease Trailblazer Award
2006 International Academy for Child Brain Development, Statuette Award
2005 ASNTR, Bernard Sanberg Memorial Award for Brain Repair
Certifications:
Certification Type:
Experimental Neurology Current, Editorial Board

Contact Information:

Email Address:

clive.svendsen@cshs.org

Work Email Address:

clive.svendsen@cshs.org

Work Email Address:

svendsenc@cshs.org


Website:

Web-profile
Web-Profile

Fax Number:

(310) 248-8066

Work Phone Number:

(310) 248-8072

Mailing Address:

Cedars-Sinai Med Ctr-MED/RMI
8700 Beverly Blvd, STe 365 Davis Bldg
Los Angeles, CA 90048


Publications:

A selected list of publications:

Ebert Allison D, Shelley Brandon C, Hurley Amanda M, Onorati Marco, Castiglioni Valentina, Patitucci Teresa N, Svendsen Soshana P, Mattis Virginia B, McGivern Jered V, Schwab Andrew J, Sareen Dhruv, Kim Ho Won, Cattaneo Elena, Svendsen Clive N   EZ spheres: a stable and expandable culture system for the generation of pre-rosette multipotent stem cells from human ESCs and iPSCs Stem cell research, 2013; 10(3): 417-27.
Nichols Nicole L, Gowing Genevieve, Satriotomo Irawan, Nashold Lisa J, Dale Erica A, Suzuki Masatoshi, Avalos Pablo, Mulcrone Patrick L, McHugh Jacalyn, Svendsen Clive N, Mitchell Gordon S   Intermittent hypoxia and stem cell implants preserve breathing capacity in a rodent model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 2013; 187(5): 535-42.
Krakora Dan, Mulcrone Patrick, Meyer Michael, Lewis Christina, Bernau Ksenija, Gowing Genevieve, Zimprich Chad, Aebischer Patrick, Svendsen Clive N, Suzuki Masatoshi   Synergistic Effects of GDNF and VEGF on Lifespan and Disease Progression in a Familial ALS Rat Model Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 2013; .
Kitiyanant Narisorn, Kitiyanant Yindee, Svendsen Clive N, Thangnipon Wipawan   BDNF-, IGF-1- and GDNF-secreting human neural progenitor cells rescue amyloid β-induced toxicity in cultured rat septal neurons Neurochemical research, 2012; 37(1): 143-52.
Lindvall Olle, Barker Roger A, Brüstle Oliver, Isacson Ole, Svendsen Clive N   Clinical translation of stem cells in neurodegenerative disorders Cell stem cell, 2012; 10(2): 151-5.
McMillan Erin L, Kamps Allison L, Lake Samuel S, Svendsen Clive N, Bhattacharyya Anita   Gene expression changes in the MAPK pathway in both Fragile X and Down syndrome human neural progenitor cells American journal of stem cells, 2012; 1(2): 154-162.
Hayes-Punzo Antonio, Mulcrone Patrick, Meyer Michael, McHugh Jacalyn, Svendsen Clive N, Suzuki Masatoshi   Gonadectomy and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) do not modulate disease progression in the G93A mutant SOD1 rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : official publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases, 2012; 13(3): 311-4.
Sareen Dhruv, Ebert Allison D, Heins Brittany M, McGivern Jered V, Ornelas Loren, Svendsen Clive N   Inhibition of apoptosis blocks human motor neuron cell death in a stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy PloS one, 2012; 7(6): e39113.
Breunig Joshua J, Gate David, Levy Rachelle, Rodriguez Javier, Kim Gi Bum, Danielpour Moise, Svendsen Clive N, Town Terrence   Rapid genetic targeting of pial surface neural progenitors and immature neurons by neonatal electroporation Neural development, 2012; 7(3): 26.
Biancotti Juan Carlos, Narwani Kavita, Mandefro Berhan, Golan-Lev Tamar, Buehler Nicole, Hill David, Svendsen Clive N, Benvenisty Nissim   The in vitro survival of human monosomies and trisomies as embryonic stem cells Stem cell research, 2012; 9(3): 218-24.
Lippmann Ethan S, Weidenfeller Christian, Svendsen Clive N, Shusta Eric V   Blood-brain barrier modeling with co-cultured neural progenitor cell-derived astrocytes and neurons Journal of neurochemistry, 2011; 119(3): 507-20.
Kim Ho Won, Svendsen Clive Niels   Gene editing in stem cells hits the target Cell stem cell, 2011; 9(2): 93-4.
Andres Robert H, Horie Nobutaka, Slikker William, Keren-Gill Hadar, Zhan Ke, Sun Guohua, Manley Nathan C, Pereira Marta P, Sheikh Lamiya A, McMillan Erin L, Schaar Bruce T, Svendsen Clive N, Bliss Tonya M, Steinberg Gary K   Human neural stem cells enhance structural plasticity and axonal transport in the ischaemic brain Brain : a journal of neurology, 2011; 134(Pt 6): 1777-89.
Mattis Virginia B, Svendsen Clive N   Induced pluripotent stem cells: a new revolution for clinical neurology? Lancet neurology, 2011; 10(4): 383-94.
Gowing Genevieve, Svendsen Clive N   Stem cell transplantation for motor neuron disease: current approaches and future perspectives Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 2011; 8(4): 591-606.
Alexanian Arshak R, Svendsen Clive N, Crowe Maria J, Kurpad Shekar N   Transplantation of human glial-restricted neural precursors into injured spinal cord promotes functional and sensory recovery without causing allodynia Cytotherapy, 2011; 13(1): 61-8.
Suzuki Masatoshi, Klein Sandra, Wetzel Elizabeth A, Meyer Michael, McHugh Jacalyn, Tork Craig, Hayes Antonio, Svendsen Clive N   Acute glial activation by stab injuries does not lead to overt damage or motor neuron degeneration in the G93A mutant SOD1 rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Experimental neurology, 2010; 221(2): 346-52.
Ebert Allison D, Barber Amelia E, Heins Brittany M, Svendsen Clive N   Ex vivo delivery of GDNF maintains motor function and prevents neuronal loss in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease Experimental neurology, 2010; 224(1): 155-62.
Candolfi Marianela, Xiong Weidong, Yagiz Kader, Liu Chunyan, Muhammad A K M G, Puntel Mariana, Foulad David, Zadmehr Ali, Ahlzadeh Gabrielle E, Kroeger Kurt M, Tesarfreund Matthew, Lee Sharon, Debinski Waldemar, Sareen Dhruv, Svendsen Clive N, Rodriguez Ron, Lowenstein Pedro R, Castro Maria G   Gene therapy-mediated delivery of targeted cytotoxins for glioma therapeutics Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2010; 107(46): 20021-6.
Ebert Allison D, Svendsen Clive N   Human stem cells and drug screening: opportunities and challenges Nature reviews. Drug discovery, 2010; 9(5): 367-72.
Keenan Thomas M, Nelson Aaron D, Grinager Jeffrey R, Thelen Jarett C, Svendsen Clive N   Real time imaging of human progenitor neurogenesis PloS one, 2010; 5(10): e13187.
Sareen Dhruv, Svendsen Clive N   Stem cell biologists sure play a mean pinball Nature biotechnology, 2010; 28(4): 333-5.
Ebert Allison D, Svendsen Clive N   Stem cell model of spinal muscular atrophy Archives of neurology, 2010; 67(6): 665-9.
Bhattacharyya Anita, McMillan Erin, Chen Serene I, Wallace Kyle, Svendsen Clive N   A critical period in cortical interneuron neurogenesis in down syndrome revealed by human neural progenitor cells Developmental neuroscience, 2009; 31(6): 497-510.
Riley Jonathan, Federici Thais, Park John, Suzuki Masatoshi, Franz Colin K, Tork Craig, McHugh Jacalyn, Teng Qingshan, Svendsen Clive, Boulis Nicholas M   Cervical spinal cord therapeutics delivery: preclinical safety validation of a stabilized microinjection platform Neurosurgery, 2009; 65(4): 754-61; discussion 761-2.
Sareen Dhruv, McMillan Erin, Ebert Allison D, Shelley Brandon C, Johnson Julie A, Meisner Lorraine F, Svendsen Clive N   Chromosome 7 and 19 trisomy in cultured human neural progenitor cells PloS one, 2009; 4(10): e7630.
Ebert Allison D, Yu Junying, Rose Ferrill F, Mattis Virginia B, Lorson Christian L, Thomson James A, Svendsen Clive N   Induced pluripotent stem cells from a spinal muscular atrophy patient Nature, 2009; 457(7227): 277-80.
Kim Hyun-Jung, McMillan Erin, Han Fabin, Svendsen Clive N   Regionally specified human neural progenitor cells derived from the mesencephalon and forebrain undergo increased neurogenesis following overexpression of ASCL1 Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio), 2009; 27(2): 390-8.
Nelson Aaron D, Suzuki Masatoshi, Svendsen Clive N   A high concentration of epidermal growth factor increases the growth and survival of neurogenic radial glial cells within human neurosphere cultures Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio), 2008; 26(2): 348-55.
Gamm David M, Melvan J Nicholas, Shearer Rebecca L, Pinilla Isabel, Sabat Grzegorz, Svendsen Clive N, Wright Lynda S   A novel serum-free method for culturing human prenatal retinal pigment epithelial cells Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 2008; 49(2): 788-99.
Suzuki Masatoshi, Svendsen Clive N   Combining growth factor and stem cell therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Trends in neurosciences, 2008; 31(4): 192-8.
Suzuki Masatoshi, McHugh Jacalyn, Tork Craig, Shelley Brandon, Hayes Antonio, Bellantuono Ilaria, Aebischer Patrick, Svendsen Clive N   Direct muscle delivery of GDNF with human mesenchymal stem cells improves motor neuron survival and function in a rat model of familial ALS Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 2008; 16(12): 2002-10.
Emborg Marina E, Ebert Allison D, Moirano Jeff, Peng Sun, Suzuki Masatoshi, Capowski Elizabeth, Joers Valerie, Roitberg Ben Z, Aebischer Patrick, Svendsen Clive N   GDNF-secreting human neural progenitor cells increase tyrosine hydroxylase and VMAT2 expression in MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys Cell transplantation, 2008; 17(4): 383-95.
Ebert Allison D, Beres Amy J, Barber Amelia E, Svendsen Clive N   Human neural progenitor cells over-expressing IGF-1 protect dopamine neurons and restore function in a rat model of Parkinson's disease Experimental neurology, 2008; 209(1): 213-23.
Ebert Allison D, McMillan Erin L, Svendsen Clive N   Isolating, expanding, and infecting human and rodent fetal neural progenitor cells Current protocols in stem cell biology, 2008; Chapter 2(12): Unit 2D.2.
Behrstock Soshana, Ebert Allison D, Klein Sandra, Schmitt Melanie, Moore Jeannette M, Svendsen Clive N   Lesion-induced increase in survival and migration of human neural progenitor cells releasing GDNF Cell transplantation, 2008; 17(7): 753-62.
Wang Shaomei, Girman Sergej, Lu Bin, Bischoff Nicholas, Holmes Toby, Shearer Rebecca, Wright Lynda S, Svendsen Clive N, Gamm David M, Lund Raymond D   Long-term vision rescue by human neural progenitors in a rat model of photoreceptor degeneration Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 2008; 49(7): 3201-6.
Bhattacharyya Anita, McMillan Erin, Wallace Kyle, Tubon Thomas C, Capowski Elizabeth E, Svendsen Clive N   Normal Neurogenesis but Abnormal Gene Expression in Human Fragile X Cortical Progenitor Cells Stem cells and development, 2008; 17(1): 107-17.
Gamm David M, Wright Lynda S, Capowski Elizabeth E, Shearer Rebecca L, Meyer Jason S, Kim Hyun-Jung, Schneider Bernard L, Melvan John Nicholas, Svendsen Clive N   Regulation of prenatal human retinal neurosphere growth and cell fate potential by retinal pigment epithelium and Mash1 Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio), 2008; 26(12): 3182-93.
Svendsen Clive   Stem cells and Parkinson's disease: toward a treatment, not a cure Cell stem cell, 2008; 2(5): 412-3.
Kim Hyun-Jung, Sugimori Michiya, Nakafuku Masato, Svendsen Clive N   Control of neurogenesis and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in neural progenitor cells through bHLH proteins and Nurr1 Experimental neurology, 2007; 203(2): 394-405.
Weidenfeller Christian, Svendsen Clive N, Shusta Eric V   Differentiating embryonic neural progenitor cells induce blood-brain barrier properties Journal of neurochemistry, 2007; 101(2): 555-65.
Suzuki Masatoshi, McHugh Jacalyn, Tork Craig, Shelley Brandon, Klein Sandra M, Aebischer Patrick, Svendsen Clive N   GDNF secreting human neural progenitor cells protect dying motor neurons, but not their projection to muscle, in a rat model of familial ALS PloS one, 2007; 2(8): e689.
Capowski Elizabeth E, Schneider Bernard L, Ebert Allison D, Seehus Corey R, Szulc Jolanta, Zufferey Romain, Aebischer Patrick, Svendsen Clive N   Lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of human neural progenitor cells for ex vivo gene therapy Journal of neuroscience methods, 2007; 163(2): 338-49.
Schneider Bernard L, Seehus Corey R, Capowski Elizabeth E, Aebischer Patrick, Zhang Su-Chun, Svendsen Clive N   Over-expression of alpha-synuclein in human neural progenitors leads to specific changes in fate and differentiation Human molecular genetics, 2007; 16(6): 651-66.
Gamm David M, Wang Shaomei, Lu Bin, Girman Sergei, Holmes Toby, Bischoff Nicholas, Shearer Rebecca L, Sauvé Yves, Capowski Elizabeth, Svendsen Clive N, Lund Raymond D   Protection of visual functions by human neural progenitors in a rat model of retinal disease PloS one, 2007; 2(3): e338.
Suzuki Masatoshi, Tork Craig, Shelley Brandon, McHugh Jacalyn, Wallace Kyle, Klein Sandra M, Lindstrom Mary J, Svendsen Clive N   Sexual dimorphism in disease onset and progression of a rat model of ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : official publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases, 2007; 8(1): 20-5.
Svendsen Clive   The first steps towards gene therapy for Parkinson's disease Lancet neurology, 2007; 6(9): 754-6.
Sherer Todd B, Fiske Brian K, Svendsen Clive N, Lang Anthony E, Langston J William   Crossroads in GDNF therapy for Parkinson's disease Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 2006; 21(2): 136-41.
Suzuki Masatoshi, Nelson Aaron D, Eickstaedt Joshua B, Wallace Kyle, Wright Lynda S, Svendsen Clive N   Glutamate enhances proliferation and neurogenesis in human neural progenitor cell cultures derived from the fetal cortex The European journal of neuroscience, 2006; 24(3): 645-53.
Wright Lynda S, Prowse Karen R, Wallace Kyle, Linskens Maarten H K, Svendsen Clive N   Human progenitor cells isolated from the developing cortex undergo decreased neurogenesis and eventual senescence following expansion in vitro Experimental cell research, 2006; 312(11): 2107-20.
Nelson Aaron D, Svendsen Clive N   Low concentrations of extracellular FGF-2 are sufficient but not essential for neurogenesis from human neural progenitor cells Molecular and cellular neurosciences, 2006; 33(1): 29-35.
Cai Jingli, Shin Soojung, Wright Lynda, Liu Ying, Zhou Daixing, Xue Haipeng, Khrebtukova Irina, Mattson Mark P, Svendsen Clive N, Rao Mahendra S   Massively parallel signature sequencing profiling of fetal human neural precursor cells Stem cells and development, 2006; 15(2): 232-44.
Chan Charles, Moore Brian E, Cotman Carl W, Okano Hideyuki, Tavares Rosemarie, Hovanesian Virginia, Pinar Halit, Johanson Conrad E, Svendsen Clive N, Stopa Edward G   Musashi1 antigen expression in human fetal germinal matrix development Experimental neurology, 2006; 201(2): 515-8.
Caldwell Maeve A, He Xiaoling, Svendsen Clive N   5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine is selectively toxic to neuronal precursors in vitro The European journal of neuroscience, 2005; 22(11): 2965-70.
Ebert Allison D, Svendsen Clive N   A new tool in the battle against Alzheimer's disease and aging: ex vivo gene therapy Rejuvenation research, 2005; 8(3): 131-4.
Kelly Claire M, Tyers Pam, Borg Melanie Ter, Svendsen Clive N, Dunnett Stephen B, Rosser Anne E   EGF and FGF-2 responsiveness of rat and mouse neural precursors derived from the embryonic CNS Brain research bulletin, 2005; 68(1-2): 83-94.
Klein Sandra M, Behrstock Soshana, McHugh Jacalyn, Hoffmann Kristin, Wallace Kyle, Suzuki Masatoshi, Aebischer Patrick, Svendsen Clive N   GDNF delivery using human neural progenitor cells in a rat model of ALS Human gene therapy, 2005; 16(4): 509-21.
Gamm David M, Nelson Aaron D, Svendsen Clive N   Human retinal progenitor cells grown as neurospheres demonstrate time-dependent changes in neuronal and glial cell fate potential Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2005; 1049(3): 107-17.
Patel Nikunj K, Bunnage Martin, Plaha Puneet, Svendsen Clive N, Heywood Peter, Gill Steven S   Intraputamenal infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in PD: a two-year outcome study Annals of neurology, 2005; 57(2): 298-302.
Li Jiang, Spletter Maria L, Johnson Delinda A, Wright Lynda S, Svendsen Clive N, Johnson Jeffrey A   Rotenone-induced caspase 9/3-independent and -dependent cell death in undifferentiated and differentiated human neural stem cells Journal of neurochemistry, 2005; 92(3): 462-76.
Li Jiang, Johnson Delinda, Calkins Marcus, Wright Lynda, Svendsen Clive, Johnson Jeffrey   Stabilization of Nrf2 by tBHQ confers protection against oxidative stress-induced cell death in human neural stem cells Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 2005; 83(2): 313-28.
Klein Sandra, Svendsen Clive N   Stem cells in the injured spinal cord: reducing the pain and increasing the gain Nature neuroscience, 2005; 8(3): 259-60.
Behrstock Soshana, Svendsen Clive N   Combining growth factors, stem cells, and gene therapy for the aging brain Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2004; 1019(2): 5-14.
Chandran Siddharthan, Compston Alastair, Jauniaux Eric, Gilson Jennifer, Blakemore William, Svendsen Clive   Differential generation of oligodendrocytes from human and rodent embryonic spinal cord neural precursors Glia, 2004; 47(4): 314-24.
Burnstein Rowan M, Foltynie Tom, He Xiaoling, Menon David K, Svendsen Clive N, Caldwell Maeve A   Differentiation and migration of long term expanded human neural progenitors in a partial lesion model of Parkinson's disease The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology, 2004; 36(4): 702-13.
Caldwell Maeve A, Garcion Emmanuel, terBorg Melanie G, He Xiaoling, Svendsen Clive N   Heparin stabilizes FGF-2 and modulates striatal precursor cell behavior in response to EGF Experimental neurology, 2004; 188(2): 408-20.
McBride Jodi L, Behrstock Soshana P, Chen Er-Yun, Jakel Rebekah J, Siegel Irwin, Svendsen Clive N, Kordower Jeffrey H   Human neural stem cell transplants improve motor function in a rat model of Huntington's disease The Journal of comparative neurology, 2004; 475(2): 211-9.
Suzuki Masatoshi, Wright Lynda S, Marwah Padma, Lardy Henry A, Svendsen Clive N   Mitotic and neurogenic effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on human neural stem cell cultures derived from the fetal cortex Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2004; 101(9): 3202-7.
Ostenfeld Thor, Svendsen Clive N   Requirement for neurogenesis to proceed through the division of neuronal progenitors following differentiation of epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2-responsive human neural stem cells Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio), 2004; 22(5): 798-811.
Tai Yu-Tzu, Svendsen Clive N   Stem cells as a potential treatment of neurological disorders Current opinion in pharmacology, 2004; 4(1): 98-104.
Svendsen Clive N, Langston J William   Stem cells for Parkinson disease and ALS: replacement or protection? Nature medicine, 2004; 10(3): 224-5.
Jakel Rebekah J, Schneider Bernard L, Svendsen Clive N   Using human neural stem cells to model neurological disease Nature reviews. Genetics, 2004; 5(2): 136-44.
Gill Steven S, Patel Nikunj K, Hotton Gary R, O'Sullivan Karen, McCarter Renée, Bunnage Martin, Brooks David J, Svendsen Clive N, Heywood Peter   Direct brain infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in Parkinson disease Nature medicine, 2003; 9(5): 589-95.
Chandran Siddharthan, Kato Hidemasa, Gerreli Dianne, Compston Alastair, Svendsen Clive N, Allen Nicholas D   FGF-dependent generation of oligodendrocytes by a hedgehog-independent pathway Development (Cambridge, England), 2003; 130(26): 6599-609.
Wright Lynda S, Li Jiang, Caldwell Maeve A, Wallace Kyle, Johnson Jeffrey A, Svendsen Clive N   Gene expression in human neural stem cells: effects of leukemia inhibitory factor Journal of neurochemistry, 2003; 86(1): 179-95.
Wachs Frank-Peter, Couillard-Despres Sebastien, Engelhardt Maren, Wilhelm Daniel, Ploetz Sonja, Vroemen Maurice, Kaesbauer Johanna, Uyanik Goekhan, Klucken Jochen, Karl Claudia, Tebbing Johanna, Svendsen Clive, Weidner Norbert, Kuhn Hans-Georg, Winkler Juergen, Aigner Ludwig   High efficacy of clonal growth and expansion of adult neural stem cells Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology, 2003; 83(7): 949-62.
Bahn Sabine, Mimmack Michael, Ryan Margaret, Caldwell Maeve A, Jauniaux Eric, Starkey Michael, Svendsen Clive N, Emson Piers   Neuronal target genes of the neuron-restrictive silencer factor in neurospheres derived from fetuses with Down's syndrome: a gene expression study Lancet, 2002; 359(9303): 310-5.
Ostenfeld Thor, Tai Yu-Tzu, Martin Peter, Déglon Nicole, Aebischer Patrick, Svendsen Clive N   Neurospheres modified to produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor increase the survival of transplanted dopamine neurons Journal of neuroscience research, 2002; 69(6): 955-65.
Le Belle Janel E, Svendsen Clive N   Stem cells for neurodegenerative disorders: where can we go from here? BioDrugs : clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy, 2002; 16(6): 389-401.
Svendsen Clive   Stem cells: hype or hope? Drug discovery today, 2002; 7(8): 455-6.
Svendsen Clive N   The amazing astrocyte Nature, 2002; 417(6884): 29-32.

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